The catalytic converter is a key element of the flue gas treatment system under development. This is due to the fact that if carbon monoxide is present in the composition of gases, then its catalytic oxidation is practically the only method for its removal. The same applies to some extent to the oxidation of NO, which also makes it possible to partially remove this non-salt-forming oxide from the flue gases.
NO 2 ⇢ N 2 + O 2
C x H y + O 2 ⇢ CO 2 + H 2 O
NO + CO ⇢ N 2 + CO 2
CO + O 2 ⇢ CO 2
NITROGEN OXIDE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND USE FROM THIS OXYGEN REACTION FOR OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND UNBURNED HYDROCARBONS IS ONE OF THE MOST EFFICIENT WAYS OF UTILIZATION AND NEUTRALIZATION OF HARMFUL EMISSIONS INDUSTRY AND MOTOR TRANSPORT
Catalytic converters are characterized by a number of parameters that determine their advantage over granular counterparts, such as:
• low gas-dynamic resistance to flow;
• high thermal stability and strength;
• high ratio of available surface to volume of material.
The honeycomb structure of such catalysts makes it possible to intensify the process by carrying out the oxidation of CO at high rates of the purified flow, and the unfolded geometric surface of the catalyst layers, with their small thickness (10–50 km), reduces diffusion inhibitions.
Within the framework of the proposed purification system, it is proposed to assemble the catalytic purification unit with two catalytic converters: on one of them, the selective reduction of nitrogen oxides by the urea introduced into the flow occurs, and on the other, platinum, the oxidation of oxides into higher forms occurs.
One of the Institute’s developments is catalytic converters for toxic gas emissions from industrial enterprises and motor vehicles.
The products have a Patent for the invention of the Republic of Kazakhstan: No. 34304 dated 04/28/2020, Certificate of origin of goods: ST-KZ No. KZ 9 105 00735, Declaration of conformity of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAC) No. EAEU N RU D-KZ.HA81.V .18604/20, Permission for the use of block exhaust gas neutralizer NTR-18-01 at hazardous production facilities No. KZ76VEH00015224 dated 12/24/2020, the Institute is included in the Register of Qualified Suppliers of Samruk- Kazyna Holding : PKO No. 826247615, Own production workshop was launched domestic catalytic converters.
The main sources of air pollution that quietly kill the inhabitants of the Earth are: thermal power plants (29%), ferrous (24%) and non-ferrous metallurgy (10.5%), petrochemical industry (15.5%), building materials (8.1%) %), vehicles (13.3%, and in large cities, with their traffic jams 60 – 80%).
Every year, on average, in large cities, about 35-40 thousand people per 100 thousand of the population suffer from various respiratory diseases, that is, almost half of all residents! The problem is so acute that we will soon take the leading place among lung diseases, and although pulmonologists are officially silent, more than 41 percent of all diseases occur in the respiratory system: these are bronchitis, asthma …
Traffic jams in cities have increased the emission of gases, and in them both sulfur oxide and lead oxide, phenolic compounds, benzopyrenes , which are extremely harmful. They are the trigger for cancer.
Catalytic converters developed by the scientists of the Institute allow converting toxic components of industrial emissions into harmless ones.
The project “Organization of the production of metal catalytic converters of toxic components in gas emissions of vehicles and industrial enterprises”, carried out within the framework of grant financing for the commercialization of RNNTD, funded by the funds of the State Institution “Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan”, allowed the Institute, together with JSC “Science Fund » organize a workshop for the production of domestic catalysts.
Already, the Institute’s catalysts have been installed on oil heating furnaces, vehicles, diesel and gas generators of subsoil user companies , banks and other enterprises of the Republic. We are actively working on new projects.
Socially responsible companies understand that cleaning the atmosphere from exhaust gases and emissions from industrial enterprises is one of the pressing problems of all mankind.
This direction in the activities of the Institute is a huge step towards changing the situation in the ecology of the entire Country and the World!
Block catalysts developed by JSC ITKE im. D.V. Sokolsky” on a metal carrier with a honeycomb structure of channels have low gas-dynamic resistance and are designed to neutralize toxic emissions from vehicles, diesel generators, gas turbine plants and industrial emissions from carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. Catalysts JSC ITKE named after D.V. Sokolsky” are produced at a pilot plant with a capacity of 10,000 catalysts per year.
Despite the fact that the gases emitted by the engine enter the converter and leave it in a fraction of a second, a large number of honeycombs – microchannels ( up to 50 per 1 sq. cm) provides a sufficient increase in the contact area of metals with gases.
So, incandescent toxic gases, namely: molecules of nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide , together with unburned fuel components, leave the engine and get into the catalytic converter, heat it up to the reaction temperature and begin to interact.
It is here, when passing through thousands of catalyst microchannels coated with platinum and palladium, that the processes of transformation of toxic compounds into harmless ones take place. Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons form carbon dioxide and water, and oxygen is removed from nitric oxide, resulting in non-toxic nitrogen.